Can You Really Find MANAGEMENT?

The world generates 2.01 billion tonnes of municipal solid waste annually, with at least 33 percent of that—extremely conservatively—not managed in an environmentally safe manner. Worldwide, waste generated per person per day averages 0.74 kilogram but ranges widely, from 0.11 to 4.54 kilograms. Though they only account for 16 percent of the world’s population, high-income countries generate about 34 percent, or 683 million tonnes, of the world’s waste.

When looking forward, global waste is expected to grow to 3.40 billion tonnes by 2050, more than double population growth over the same period. Overall, there is a positive correlation between waste generation and income level. Daily per capita waste generation in high-income countries is projected to increase by 19 percent by 2050, compared to low- and middle-income countries where it is expected to increase by approximately 40% or more. Waste generation initially decreases at the lowest income levels and then increases at a faster rate for incremental income changes at low income levels than at high income levels. The total quantity of waste generated in low-income countries is expected to increase by more than three times by 2050. The East Asia and Pacific region is generating most of the world’s waste, at 23 percent, and the Middle East and North Africa region is producing the least in absolute terms, at 6 percent. However, the fastest growing regions are Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East and North Africa, where, by 2050, total waste generation is expected to more than triple, double, and double respectively. In these regions, more than half of waste is currently openly dumped, and the trajectories of waste growth will have vast implications for the environment, health, and prosperity, thus requiring urgent action.

Projected waste generation, by region (millions of tonnes/year)

Projected waste generation, by region (millions of tonnes/year)
Waste collection is a critical step in managing waste, yet rates vary largely by income levels, with upper-middle- and high-income countries providing nearly universal waste collection. Low-income countries collect about 48 percent of waste in cities, but this proportion drops drastically to 26 percent outside of urban areas. Across regions, Sub-Saharan Africa collects about 44 percent of waste while Europe and Central Asia and North America collect at least 90 percent of waste.

Waste collection rates, by income level (percent)

Waste collection rates, by income level (percent)
Waste composition differs across income levels, reflecting varied patterns of consumption. High-income countries generate relatively less food and green waste, at 32 percent of total waste, and generate more dry waste that could be recycled, including plastic, paper, cardboard, metal, and glass, which account for 51 percent of waste. Middle- and low-income countries generate 53 percent and 57 percent food and green waste, respectively, with the fraction of organic waste increasing as economic development levels decrease. In low-income countries, materials that could be recycled account for only 20 percent of the waste stream. Across regions, there is not much variety within waste streams beyond those aligned with income. All regions generate about 50 percent or more organic waste, on average, except for Europe and Central Asia and North America, [ANCHOR_COMES_HERE] – – which generate higher portions of dry waste.

Global waste composition (percent)

Global waste composition (percent)
It is a frequent misconception that technology is the solution to the problem of unmanaged and increasing waste. Technology is not a panacea and is usually only one factor to consider when managing solid waste. Countries that advance from open dumping and other rudimentary waste management methods are more likely to succeed when they select locally appropriate solutions. Globally, most waste is currently dumped or disposed of in some form of a landfill. Some 37 percent of waste is disposed of in some form of a landfill, 8 percent of which is disposed of in sanitary landfills with landfill gas collection systems. Open dumping accounts for about 31 percent of waste, 19 percent is recovered through recycling and composting, and 11 percent is incinerated for final disposal. Adequate waste disposal or treatment, such as controlled landfills or more stringently operated facilities, is almost exclusively the domain of high- and upper-middle-income countries. Lower-income countries generally rely on open dumping; 93 percent of waste is dumped in low-income countries and only 2 percent in high-income countries. Three regions openly dump more than half of their waste—the Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia. Upper-middle-income countries have the highest percentage of waste in landfills, at 54 percent. This rate decreases in high-income countries to 39 percent, with diversion of 36 percent of waste to recycling and composting and 22 percent to incineration. Incineration is used primarily in high-capacity, high-income, and land-constrained countries.

Global treatment and disposal of waste (percent)

Global treatment and disposal of waste (percent)
Based on the volume of waste generated, its composition, and how it is managed, it is estimated that 1.6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gas emissions were generated from solid waste treatment and disposal in 2016, or 5 percent of global emissions. This is driven primarily by disposing of waste in open dumps and landfills without landfill gas collection systems. Food waste accounts for nearly 50% of emissions. Solid waste–related emissions are anticipated to increase to 2.38 billion tonnes of CO2-equivalent per year by 2050 if no improvements are made in the sector.

In most countries, solid waste management operations are typically a local responsibility, and nearly 70 percent of countries have established institutions with responsibility for policy development and regulatory oversight in the waste sector. About two-thirds of countries have created targeted legislation and regulations for solid waste management, though enforcement varies drastically. Direct central government involvement in waste service provision, other than regulatory oversight or fiscal transfers, is uncommon, with about 70 percent of waste services being overseen directly by local public entities. At least half of services, from primary waste collection through treatment and disposal, are operated by public entities and about one-third involve a public-private partnership. However, successful partnerships with the private sector for financing and operations tend to succeed only under certain conditions with appropriate incentive structures and enforcement mechanisms, and therefore they are not always the ideal solution.

Financing solid waste management systems is a significant challenge, even more so for ongoing operational costs than for capital investments, and operational costs need to be taken into account upfront. In high-income countries, operating costs for integrated waste management, including col-lection, transport, treatment, and disposal, generally exceed $100 per tonne. Lower-income countries spend less on waste operations in absolute terms, with costs of about $35 per tonne and sometimes higher, but these countries experience much more difficulty in recovering costs. Waste management is labor intensive and costs of transportation alone are in the range of $20–$50 per tonne. Cost recovery for waste services differs drastically across income levels. User fees range from an average of $35 per year in low-income countries to $170 per year in high-income countries, with full or nearly full cost recovery being largely limited to high-income countries. User fee models may be fixed or variable based on the type of user being billed. Typically, local governments cover about 50 percent of investment costs for waste systems, and the remainder comes mainly from national government subsidies and the private sector.


The modern business environment is very volatile and complex therefore demanding more attention and dedication from entrepreneurs and business executives. If business individuals lack the necessary management skills then their business efforts are most likely to fail because businesses demand that managers make the right decisions in order for them to survive in time of emergency and even in the normal course of business (Baruch, 2004, 114).

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The Next Generation Management module is a module that will enable those interested in management to understand how to manage not only their own business ventures and organizations and also impart sense of social responsibility through attending various lecture, workshops, seminars, and conferences around Dublin. Contemporary management of organizations is not simple and therefore this is why this module will concentrate ensuring that attendees gain skills on:

Personal and Career Development: Competence assessment, planning and development, which is important in ensuring that managers have the ability to attain skills that will assist them to have the necessary skills in both the short run and long run such skills include better decision making capability, better leadership ability, and in turn managers will be able to base their decisions on logic through critical thinking.

Furthermore managers who undergo personal development programs are able to portray self confidence communicate better and even end up being creative due to the flexible approach that they have to tackling organizational issues.

The Next Generation module will also help managers gain ability to appreciate the need of operating with a Global and a societal approach by attending lecturers from renown Nobel Laureate, Dr Chu the discussion made clear that the physical environment was part and parcel of the business environment and therefore needed to be taken care of because if it disintegrates that the economy and human economic activities will also fail.

Additionally, discussions from this part of the model enable students of management appreciate the role of creativity and innovation together with the important role which both agriculture, ethics and Greenpeace plays in the environment.

Research is a crucial part of Next Generation management module because research is able to assist managers gain the right information that will guide their decision making and logical thinking process. Discussions unveiled on the importance of carrying out systematic research and avoiding plagiarism because plagiarism can often affect the outcome of a research and compromise its quality.

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Research is an important part of today’s business environment and therefore it is important to gather and analyze data properly so that the information obtained can be considered useful and assist in decision making( Kourdi 2009, 114). The discussions on research did shed light on Digital media and communication which has become an integral part of organizational and inter-organizational communication.

Managers are therefore required to embrace the emerging communication trends that individuals in the business world are adopting today because they can determine whether an organization performs better or even fails. The acquisition of the right skill set and through continuous learning is crucial for those who intend to become good managers since it helps them realize and even surpass their potential.

With more high-tech devices, mobile technology and software it is necessary for managers to attend various seminars and tutorials and implement continuous learning techniques that will allow them to embrace the latest communication and software trends for the benefit of their organization especially when dealing with consumers (Solomon & Askegaard, 2002, p.44)

Overall Reflection
Managers in any functional area of an organization are expected to run organizations on behalf of the shareholders and produce the expected results it is therefore necessary that managers gather the necessary knowledge from various avenues in order for them to get the necessary skills to help them carry out their functions more successfully and efficiently.

The Next Generation Management gives managers the opportunity by which they can learn more and become better managers through attending a series lecture, workshops, seminars, mini-conferences that aim to encourage, the need to sustain personal development, social responsibility, research skills and communication skills which are an essential part of today’s organizations (Trott 2008, 78).

This module is therefore very important not only for businesses, organizations and managers as individuals but also can be influential in the country’s economy, which aims to increase the output of individuals who are directly linked to the economy of the country.

The economy and the business environment are subject to highly complex variables and all managers including marketing managers should be ready to solve business problems as they present themselves.

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It is therefore necessary for entrepreneurs and leaders to have the necessary management skills so that complex business situations can be solved and situations which often present themselves as problems can be turned into opportunities (Kourdi 2009, 4). By applying leadership skills organizational managers can come across as more effective and make better decisions because their analytical and logical skills can be easily improved as a result of attending discussions of this model.

This module furthermore insists on the importance and priority that should be attached to creativity and innovation at both the individual and society level. Many individuals who haven’t been exposed to teachings of this model may be tempted to ignore the importance of innovation in today’s society.

The Next Generation Management gives the learner the opportunity to expand their mindset to look at the business and economy as part of the globe and the entire global society and therefore initiate solutions that are not only solutions to the problems of the county of Ireland but are also a solution for the entire globe.

When managers operate with global approach they are most likely to make decisions that are more ethical and moral. Today’s business environment is full of scandals and irresponsibility and thus managers are required to put their foot down and make decisions that not only correlate to their interests but also to the interests of the community.

This module enables managers weigh benefits accrued in the short run and compare them to benefits that will be accrued in the long run and factor them in their decision making in order to increase positive outcome. Managers need to discover that business success doesn’t come easy and if they desire to be successful they are required to become very creative and innovative.

Creativity is becoming the backbone of the world’s greatest organizations and the largest economies. Managers are therefore required not only to use their abilities but also gather the views of various subordinates and together work towards developing creative approaches of doing business and reinventing the economy.

The Next Generation module also enabled us understand the importance of taking care of the environment and ensuring that the country remains agriculturally stable in order to ensure that the future of Ireland is secured because food stability is important to the economy of any country.

The destruction of the environment will therefore have a negative toll on the business environment and thus managers should not remain ignorant or arrogant to the environment hence they should struggle to maintain the environment one on one or through environmental organizations such as Greenspan.

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This module provided a platform which made it clear that research should take center stage in improving not only the economy but also businesses. Managers are supposed to carry out research more frequently and vigorously and information gathered from research should be clearly analyzed using packages such as SPSS can be used to assist in the process of decision making.

Managers usually require a lot of facts so that their ability to make carry out analysis and solve problems can be made easier. There are many dangers of plagiarizing work and therefore it is necessary for managers to carry out independent qualitative and quantitative research so that their research can unveil new findings that can help them and their organization carry out innovative changes.

It is thus necessary to use all research tools in order to ensure that the findings of research can turn out to be very useful even when presented to other peers and those who the information as useful. The Next Generation Management gave us the opportunity to appreciate the development in media and communication techniques that are used in today’s commercial environment.

Technological environment have led to many inventions which managers can use to carry out their functions more easily and companies can even collect data from their consumers more easily through socials sites and mobile applications and use this in shaping organizational strategy. Marketing managers for example, can improve on organizational marketing strategy and even increase organizational revenue streams by embracing the role played by technology in the media (Trott, 2008, 103-113).

The introduction of the internet in the business environment is very important to the managers since the managers can use internet search engines to maximize business opportunities for themselves and their organizations, and it is therefore necessary for managers to take technology serious because it is a key success ingredient in today’s business environment.

Enterprise Resource planning is an important part of today’s organizations because it assists organizations to minimize losses and wastage of resources and therefore organizations should also adopt technologies that will allow them to plan on how to optimize the use of their resources.

In conclusion the Next Generation Management module has opened my eyes to the world of strategic management practices, making it clear that success of today’s commercial enterprises depends on how well managers are able to make financial, marketing, human resource and other organizational decisions by adopting innovative techniques.

Personal & Career Development
Good management is necessary for the continued existence and success of commercial organizations; this is because commercial organization and even non commercial organizations usually find themselves in ambiguous situations that require managers to use their skills and talents to direct the organization out of dilemmas.

For managers to successfully plan, staff, control, organize and direct the organization it is necessary that these managers obtain the necessary set of skills that will proof usefully in ensuring that the day to day and long run operations of the organization are carried out smoothly.

Organizations are driven by strategic goals which are enshrined in the mission and vision of the company and it is therefore important to ensure that organizational staff and especially management have their talents and skills fully developed to competently deal with ambiguous situations (Baruch 2004, 44).

While an organizations mission is mostly a vehicle of taking the organization into the future it mainly operates with a short term day to day operation and the vision is usually long-term managers are therefore need to have their personal skills developed for them to make the necessary career decisions effectively.

Most of these skills were developed in a series of seminars and workshops that required managers to go out on their own talk. For example Deloitte conference, assess the value of an idea, CV writing workshop, Bobby Kerr-motivation, coaching speech, Paddy Power – motivation, coaching speech, Attendance of Chinese classes- for personal development, Be involved in tutoring of IT for elderly people, and Improving Yourself-esteem – seminar/workshop.

It is hence clear that managers require their organizations to put in place training and development schedules that will assist their managers require the necessary long-term and short-term skills to effectively carry out their organization responsibilities in today’s turbulent business environment. The following are the most important skills that those who were part of the management module were required to acquire.

The Next Generation Management module required that managers attend lectures, workshops, seminars, mini-conferences and individual development of personal development plan speeches Dublin. The following are some of the necessary shorter skills that managers were able to develop during this Next Generation Management module which were scheduled to take place in a timeframe of 12 months:

Self confidence
Managers are required to operate with a high level of confidence this is because other subordinates look up to them. Hence, if managers do not portray self confidence then subordinates may be forced to doubt his leadership and decision making abilities and this is will therefore affect the organization (Baruch, 2004, 32).

Managers are therefore required to dress, talk and even carry themselves in such a way that portrays that they are highly confident. Managers are required to have a positive image and positive thoughts of hope and possibility and transfer this to subordinates ands clients while interacting in the normal course of business.

Communication is a key part of business and is therefore vital that managers use communication techniques that will ensure all stakeholders are informed in the right time and the right information is given to them. Managers are therefore required to develop skills that will allow them to pass messages with the right tone, mimics, gestures and pronunciation (Corfield 2009, 5).

Managers are also required to have the appropriate presentation skills that will enable the managers carry out oral presentations with high effectiveness not only in official meetings but also social events.

The business environment is volatile and ever changing and it is therefore necessary that managers have the necessary skills that will allow them to be highly flexible especially when organizational changes take place.

Managers are therefore required to be highly radical and use environmental scanning techniques and create the necessary support systems that will enable the organization embrace change. Dynamic managers are more likely to create organizations that smoothly embrace strategic change that is necessary for better performance of the organization.

Creativity/Innovative thinking
It is often the task of managers to make sure that fresh ideas are consistently developed in commercial organizations. A dynamic environment requires new ideas frequently and thus managers are required to be trained to tap into their imagination in order to develop new ideas (Trott, 2008, p.7). Managers are thus encouraged to continuously research read and even attend seminars that will develop their innovative skills.

Self Management
Manager are required to have the necessary skills to prioritize and efficiently allocate resources where they are needed and therefore they need to develop their self management skills. Managers are required to plan in advance and schedule activities within a timeframe and see to it that these events occur as planned.

The Next Generation Management module which was scheduled took place in a timeframe of 12 months also ensured that manager’s personal and career development assisted manager’s gain the following skills.

Managers are supposed to be leaders and be able to influence the behavior of individuals and inspire them to follow the strategic goals of an organization in order to achieve the mission and vision. Managers with up to date leadership skills are able to set goals prioritize and also operate with well defined action plans.

Leaders set an image for the organization and trend for subordinates by ensuring that they have a positive attitude, properly research and have the knowledge and assist subordinates to grasp the fact and process, and this was the aim of the Next Generation Management module.

Managers are required to have the ability to bring subordinates’ together and build relationships through cooperation and mutual respect for the benefit of the organization (Whetton & Camerson 2007, 88). Managers are able to do this by constantly attending seminars, tutorials and social events in order to gain team building skills.

Decision making
Managers are often required to make quick decisions when need arises and hence it in good that managers have the ability to analyze situations with wisdom and make acceptable justifiable solutions that are backed by fact and reason (Beeson 2009, 54). Managers build such capacity through tutorials, seminars and focus on continuous research.

Analytical and Problem solving techniques
Manages are required to use logic and reason in order to ensure that they can effectively resolve difficult matters that are problematic. It is thus very important that managers develop the right potential to handle problematic situations and emerge out of them by using logic and facts to solve problems (Whetton & Camerson, 2007, p.18). Managers are able to acquire this skill through continuous learning and research, concentration and also by attending the right seminars and tutorials.

Global and Societal Awareness
Nobel Laureate Lecture
The Next Generation Management module demanded that we attend seminars and tutorials to assist us as students of contemporary management to get an in-depth experience of why it is necessary for manager’s, businessmen and entrepreneurs to have societal awareness while carrying out their duties.

In one of our lectures at a seminar, the Nobel Laureate Dr Chu and other numerous speakers made it clear that it is important for students of business to know that business activities are usually accompanied by physical impact, because business activities usually depend a lot on the environment for most of its activities to be successful.

Dr Chu made it clear that the operations of businesses and commercial enterprises normally cause climate and environmental changes. He furthermore made it clear that the issue of energy has caused big debate and it is now the high time that researchers encourage industries to use renewable energy sources and re-evaluate energy policies so as to save the planet from further depletion.

The speaker insisted that the downturn and destruction of the environment would most likely lead to the demise of the economy and it is thus necessary to nature the environment and replenish it using technologies that will transform the environment in order for human economic activities to take place.

University of Enterprise: Delivering Ireland’s Next Class of Successful Entrepreneurs.
The future of the economy and of the corporate world definitely depends on how well today’s young entrepreneurs are natured and brought up in order for them to become the best business elite in the future. Modern entrepreneurs are therefore required to be shaped in order for them to become highly dynamic and environmentally conscious.

If the upcoming entrepreneurs are arrogant and ignore the important role the environment plays making their ventures a success then there will be faced with an economic downturn thus entrepreneurs should operate with practices which do not pollute or degrade the environment.

It is thus necessary to prepare entrepreneurs so that they can acquire the necessary knowledge and also have the ability to apply it in the real world (Trott, 2008, p.33). Lectures at the workshop also made it clear those entrepreneurs who continuously learn and take education serious are more likely succeed.

The Long Debate (Inventorium)
This discussion made it clear Creativity and imagination is a key cornerstone of today’s turbulent business environment laying emphasis that the greatest organizations are continuously searching for new creative avenues of doing business and therefore this is why they excel as compared to their counterparts (Trott, 2008, p.16).

The lecturers made it clear that an economy which considers itself as superior and smart must continuously apply more effort towards ensuring that their greatest minds are always working on the next big thing. Ireland is a country of vision and thus has put its best minds towards bringing innovative practices into the country’s economy.

Additionally it is also important for the entire society to create mechanisms for sustaining development but at the same time self-development should not be ignored because it is important to the success of entrepreneurs and organizations. The speaker insisted that if one is expected to be outstanding, it is a must that he/she operates with a mentality that will give his or her venture the stability to be highly creative so that he can use novellus ideas to outshine other competitors.

Climate Change and agriculture
The discussion centered on the importance of agriculture on the economy keeping in mind that one of the most important elements of an economy is the ability of a country to have enough food to feeds it citizens in order for it to move towards industrialization. The current global economy is growing at a faster pace and the environment is becoming depleted due to the careless nature of corporations therefore threatening agricultural activities.

The discussion also revealed that the effects of pollution and deforestation are having a negative effect on the temperatures, rainfall and the quality of the soil therefore having a negative impact on agriculture. If the current trend continues together with effects of population explosion then it is more likely that the global economy and entrepreneurial efforts will also be affected and therefore innovative methods like green houses must be introduced in order to increase food production.

Personal Ethics
The discussion made it clear that ethics provide a basis by which individuals are able to determine what is right or wrong. Ethics are governed by moral values and what may be morally ethical in Ireland may not be necessarily ethical in any other part of the world.

The discussion further revealed that what is lawful is not necessarily ethical and that individuals are normally torn between loyalty and the truth or even sometimes on maters to do with personal interest verses community interest therefore affecting their decisions. It is therefore true to conclude ethics is strictly personal and thus individuals must evaluate the possible consequences of their actions/decisions and if the results are have more harm that good to the society abandon them.

The business environment is for example involved with decisions that aim to increase benefit of the organization but it is necessary that managers and entrepreneurs apply ethical principles while making business decisions. Managers and entrepreneurs’ should apply wisdom and not only look at a short-term view but also take a long-term approach while making business decisions.

This discussion was based around the numerous numbers of non governmental organizations that have dedicated their efforts towards restoring the sanctity of the environment that has come about as the result of human activity. The discussion revealed that Greenpeace is a non governmental organization that funds its activities using donations, the organization aims to restore flora and fauna and make earth a better place by reducing environment destruction.

Entrepreneurs and business executives are aware of the toll that their business activities have on the environment and therefore it is important for them to use their corporate social responsibility arm by donating and funding activities of such bodies with the aim of having the environment restored.

The advantage of having such organizations around is that these organizations promote responsible behavior by adjusting the attitudes of human beings who are responsible of exploiting natural resources. The organization has hence achieved a lot through its operations which spread in over 40 countries in the world, making it a very important part of the global society.

Research skills are important for today’s managers, the business environment is highly volatile and organizations are faced with problems and thereby managers and employees need to have the ability to carry out research in order to assist management to make important decisions based on factual findings (McGivern, 2006, p123).

It is thus necessary for individuals to adhere to ethics and ensure that any research that they carry out is not plagiarized. Every research is unique in its own way and it is hence necessary to carry out research diligently and base the findings and recommendations based on the findings of the research (Hogan, Dolan, & Donnellly, 2009, p.16).

Discussions in the Next Generation Management module made it clear that if a researcher carries out research and for what ever reasons decides to replicate findings by borrowing from the works of another researcher it will be necessary that the researcher acknowledge all sources where he/she borrowed from.

Plagiarism is not only illegal but it can also be misleading in some instances and thereby compromise any strategic decisions that managers make especially in commercial organizations. It is therefore necessary for researchers to be highly disciplined and carry out their literature review properly by consulting and acknowledging the various sources of their information.

Once researcher has gathered the necessary data it then becomes their responsibility to interpret and arrange the data in such a way that it will serve the main objective of their research. The researcher must find the most suitable way to analyze their data so that it can make sense to the audience which it was intended for (Kourdi, 2009, p.38).

Many researchers conduct their research so that they can provide useful information that can be used by not only other peers but also by those in the business environment in order to assist managers in their decision making process. This is therefore the main reason which always drives researchers to carry out research in order to have them published and reviewed by their peers.

When a particular writer’s research is highly appreciated and commended by peers then a researcher feels a sense of pride and therefore will continue to expound on his research by carrying out other works. Strategic decisions especially branding and product decisions made by marketing managers are not guess work but rather they are based on academic foundations that are normally obtained from various peer reviews and published sources.

If this published work and peer reviews were absent then it would make it hard to know which research findings were more correct and therefore justifiable, this fact would make it quite hard for business managers to carry out decision making because they would simply doubt the facts that were presented in front of them. Peer review enables various researches which are published undergo vigorous scrutiny and therefore ascertain the validity of their contributing to the various disciplines they claim to have authority over.

SPSS is a software package that enables individuals carrying out research quantify their findings and make the most suitable conclusions hence, making useful information out of the data (Burrell, and Morgan, 1979, p.13) The discussion of the Next Generation Management module made it clear that this software is very important in the field of social sciences.

When researchers want to carry out social researches and even analyze demographic data this package becomes a very important part of their research due to its ability to accept quantitative data and summarize it in the form of graphs, pie charts and even pictographs (McGivern, 2006, p 43).

Marketing activities of such organizations usually require a lot of research that requires demographic analysis and thus manager’s end up using this package to make the necessary deductions that are crucial in formulating marketing strategy (Burrell, & Morgan,1979, p.98).

It thus becomes clear that in the absence of this package then managers would be subjected to a more tiresome ways of analyzing data that is collected using questionnaires. It is thus necessary for managers who intend to become good researchers to quickly learn and frequently use this package in order to have more factual information that is good for decision making within the organization.

The Next Generation Module discussion also made it clear that the research process can only be successful if the right techniques are used by managers to construct the moist appropriate questionnaires. Faulty questionnaires will most likely compromise the entire research process and it is therefore important for a manager/researcher to clearly define the purpose of his research and thus generate questionnaire questions that are specific and appropriate for the research at hand (Burns & Burns, 2008,p.63-67).

If the questionnaire is compromised then the findings will most likely also be compromised and such events will in turn the decisions which managers make in the long run. Dublin buss is able to accurately construct its questionnaires in order to gather satisfaction data from its customers and use this information to justify any strategic changes (Solomon & Askegaard, 2002, p.17).

Digital Skills, Media & Communication
The need for individuals within the business community and the economy to communicate is very important and plays a big role in determining the success or failure of the organizations which they run, it thus has become very necessary that individuals within the business industry to dedicate resources and adopt the use of web technologies such as CSS3 & HTML5 in order to maximize the potential of their business ventures.

Web technologies are thus very essential because they enable companies and organizations develop websites that are a very important part of communication and business considering the web is sometimes necessary for financial transactions and exchange of goods and services to occur (Hoffman & Novak, 2000).

Managers within functional areas of I.T and marketing should make sure that the individuals who are responsible for using web technologies have the necessary programming skills that enable them program and develop websites efficiently by getting rid of redundant coding technologies.

The Discussion by Mike Schroepfer, Facebook VP of engineering, enabled the participants understand that computer science developments play a very big role towards defining the level of innovation among many industries and especially businesses.

Computer science enables managers develop the necessary innovations that are necessary in project management and also plays a big role towards ensuring that people around the world are connected to each other therefore enabling a lot of opportunities to be realized (Payne & Peck, 2003, p.87).

Business managers and marketers especially should ensure while using such technologies that the parameters are customized in such a way that the end consumers find it suitable for their use. As much as individuals usually resist change, it is the duty of managers to work hand in hand with the society to help them embrace change that will result to more positive outcome.

As much as consumers and majority of businesses are embracing the digital age that has most of its activities going on over the internet, managers are thus expected to have the necessary minimum skills that will enable them embrace the digital world that has become inseparable for businesses ( Kourdi, 2009. P.188-190). Majority of business activities and especially marketing activities have forced marketing managers to formulate digital strategies that will enable them carry their business activities on the net.

Web 2.0 technologies has taken the concept of social marketing to another height thereby pushing a lot of consumer traffic to the net and therefore companies are even distributing, promoting and marketing their products using viral marketing techniques. Blogging sites have now become a part of the social revolution on the internet thus demanding managers to develop strategies that will enable their products and brands gain good images and ratings in the social media of the internet.

A while back, mobile phones were just used for communication by marketers and managers, thanks to the numerous mobile phone applications that run on smartphones such as IPhone and Android enabled hand sets consumers have a direct link to the worldwide web and business products just on the click of a button.

With these facts unveiled managers are supposed to get rid of mobile any obstacles that hinder the enhancement of doing business between organizations by developing programs and applications that will make it easy and more convenient for consumers to conduct business with their mobiles. Numerous businesses around the world are increasing their business potential and realizing many revenue streams as a result of embracing and integrating the use of mobile applications into their business models.

Search optimization technology is very important as far as using web applications is concerned and a company’s website may simply have low traffic and low transactions if the wrong approach was used by developers and I.T specialists in order to set up a website (Windham, 2001, p.145).

Website developers thus have no option but to work hand in hand with all functional managers in order to ensure that the right key words are used while developing websites so that when consumers/clientele go online their websites are more likely to have more chances of being accessed by consumers who wish to purchase products or access company information.

I.T department plays a very big role in ensuring that organizations communicate with the entire world and it is therefore up to them to adopt the latest technologies such as cloud computing technology in order to take their organizations into the next level and make it more easier for customers to use the web to interact with the organization (Hoffman & Novak, 2000).

If organizations fail to use technology to store appropriate consumers data and manage organizational resources then it will become hard for this organizations to maximize their business opportunities. As technologies become obsolete and as new technologies become more usable the I.T experts are required to ensure that the transition between technologies is smooth and doesn’t affect the organization negatively.

Software used within organizations is used in order to help organizations manage resources and run operations with a high degree of efficiency. Many organizations are adopting the use of Enterprise Resource Planning Technology with the aim that the software will assist the organization through its managers prevent the wastage of resource through optimizing the use of resources within the organization.

The introduction of such software enables organization plan its sales and revenue streams at a high and also reduce any unnecessary cost thereby saving organizations from unnecessary loses.

The role of software in business cannot be ignored and if the level of software innovation within Ireland decreases, so will the performance of organization and the economy.

It is thus necessary for stakeholders to invest in the future of the Irish software industry and ensure that innovation is sustained because if they fail to do this then the growth of the Irish economy and other related industries will also be compromised.

The development of new software is vital towards sustain sales and competitive intelligence of many industries and thus continuous and consistent research should be carried out in order to make sure the Irish software industry stays ahead within the markets needs.

15 Web Development Tips To Enhance Your Skills.

A web designer is an expert who deals with sites, spaces, and applications. They plan, change, compose code, and assemble pages, web destinations, and applications best-romantic-vacations.

Web improvement is a quickly developing field. There is no legitimization for delaying as a software engineer. If you have any desire to stay on top of the most recent patterns and keep an upper hand, you should consistently study and foster your capacities.

On the off chance that you’re similar to most software engineers, you’ve without a doubt looked at the code and pondered how you could further develop it.

There will constantly be open doors for emovereasy development as a developer, no issue what you’re doing in your calling. Students ought to work on their capacities, while experienced designers ought to continually attempt to upgrade their code’s lucidity, effectiveness, and simplicity of support.

This article presents fifteen suggestions to help engineers in upgrading their advancement capacities and making unarespuesta quantifiable enhancements from where they are passing to where they need to be sometime in the not so distant future.

Utilize the legitimate instruments

This ought to be undeniable: Make sure you have the appropriate instruments and comprehend how to use them.

Photoshop and Illustrator are positively expected for website specialists. Nonetheless, on the off chance that you’re a web engineer, you’ll require a strong assortment of web improvement airportshuttleservices applications to help you.

Normally, toolboxs differ across employments and people. For instance, certain individuals will simply require a terminal to make their sites as opposed to the Coda site improvement bundle. What is significant is that your instruments help you in finishing the responsibility as fast as could be expected.

Take part in Open-Source Initiatives

Taking part in open-source drives on destinations like GitHub permits you to take care of business prepaidify with code. You might assemble your variant of a current venture by forking it. You may likewise uphold an ongoing site by helping it in arriving at its finishing stage or by settling little issues to upgrade its unwavering quality.

Anything that decision you pick will without a doubt prompt minormore fantastic information on your code and openness to others’ work, which might show you another methodology.

Would what you like to do.

Assuming your underlying few maneuvers toward vocation coding are monotonous and awkward, you’re as of now en route to burnout before you’ve even begun!

To forestall this, emphasis on areas of development that interest you and motivate you during the day. These are the things that will help you through undeniable depressed spots when you question, “Is this genuinely what I would like?” For most people, these feelings of vulnerability are unavoidable. In any case, the more certain you need to harp on, the more prominent your odds of coming out on top with development.

You’ll likewise improve the development capacities that are vital to you, which is the groundwork of fulfillment.

Blog memberships

One more ability you’ll require is the capacity to figure out other internet based experts’ distributions. By the by, rather than taking everything expressed, pursue decisions about what appears to be fundamental and what doesn’t. Step by step instructions to articles are standard on sites, and they make sense of how for produce, plan, or alter specific materials.

Website specialists ought to use sites’ related web journals to accumulate as much information as achievable. In the event that you have your site, you can utilize hyperlinks to assess the scholars of specific pieces and help others in tracking down them too.

Continuously be interested.

You can’t be a capable web designer except if you have essentially a passing interest in the subject. So it’s significant before very long: fervor will rouse you to continue onward and forestall dreariness.

Presently, if you need to be a software engineer since it’s basic or on the grounds that you simply need to bring in great cash, you will run into an unexpected stopping point. Web creation isn’t straightforward, and you’ll require more motivator than just cash to begin.

All through your web advancement vocation, you will without a doubt encounter ups and downs in your drive. Obviously, you will disdain it at focuses. Interest, then again, consistently returns. In the event that not, don’t be terrified to take a stab at something else. The world is overflowing with potential outcomes.

Runs are a solid method for working.

Rehearsing in runs might assist you with accomplishing more quicker than expected. For instance, compose an exposition in little explodes, a few headings at a period, then have an extensive break from it to focus on something different, returning later in the day.

Centering in 10-to 20-minute augmentations empowers your mind to make new contemplations while additionally keeping them from being exhausted. What’s more, zeroing in regarding a matter in little sprays guarantees that you are continually new when you return.

Teach people on what you have realized

You might accept you’re not ready to deal with expounding on code. You’re not an essayist, all things considered. Notwithstanding, laying out a blog and imparting your mastery to others is a fabulous strategy to continue to learn.

You will start to orchestrate your thoughts and build the subject you expound on by distributing what you comprehend. In specific occasions, you might wish to do extra concentrate on regarding the matter, which will prompt more critical learning and more significant information on the issue you’re endeavoring to address.

In addition to that, yet writing for a blog raises your profile and lays out you as an expert regarding the matter. So proceed and remember a blog for your webpage.

Consistently, code.

This is an unquestionable requirement for any ability you need to get to the next level. On the off chance that you might want to improve at anything, you should make it a normal custom – a standard that you don’t break. You will benefit from this devotion in two ways.

As a matter of some importance, as is commonly said, “beneficial things take time.” Every one of those long periods of stir stacks up rapidly, and before you understand it, you’ll have a utility belt brimming with tasks, mastery, and dialects. This is a urgent encounter for improving your abilities and landing fascinating business.

Second, and perhaps more significantly, day to day improvement will leave you feeling like a developer. You’ll before long quit seeing yourself as a “wannabe” and begin considering yourself to be the certified thing. This will build your confidence and drive.

Have an arrangement of your work

This is where you can flaunt the entirety of your work, including the sites you’ve assembled, activitys you’ve created, and pictures you’ve produced utilizing your site advancement capacities.

Clients by and large need to go through the commonsense substance you made prior to entrusting their responsibility to you. The portfolio likewise helps with understanding where you started, your blunders, and your achievements.

Continuously have a receptive outlook.

Congrats if you appreciate web advancement and would need to more deeply study it. You’re a curiousexciting web engineer.

Interest and interest remain closely connected. Interest is a good sign of whether you’re sufficiently sharp to program day in and day out.

If it’s not too much trouble, recall, however, that engineers are not locked in and curious all of the time.

You have the fundamental qualities a web engineer ought to have: interest and excitement. This is the premise you’ll should be a sound and content web engineer.

Try to get familiar with another ability.

Try out another dialect or an alternate strategy to break the repetitiveness of zeroing in on various undertakings.

Thus, albeit proceeding with an illustration to a great extent will not get you to skill, it actually utilizes the standards of consistently being acquainted with and participated in programming.

Recollect that specialists made the examples on these destinations by long periods of ability in many occurrences, and they frequently accentuate imaginative applications in new advances, dialects, and APIs.

Get a few books to peruse.

Regardless of whether you work in innovation, snatching up a book has a great deal of advantages.

A book’s size and detail empower the writer to go into more profundity than can be acquired on Free web-based courses, in an exposition, or a YouTube video. Pretty much every coding book has something to show you, no issue what level of software engineer you are. What’s more, in the event that you’re self-educated, there could be no greater method for learning than through training and tutoring.

Partake in gatherings and discussions

There are various software engineer gatherings and discussions where people might pose inquiries about different subjects on the Internet. Normally, any idea is by and large met with energy by web designers.

Shut and open networks are the two sorts of gatherings. In a confidential gathering, you should apply to be a member and get normal assets. In an open gathering, anyone, both a part and a guest, may see subjects and discussions of interest.

Try not to Plan Too Much

You shouldn’t plan your average business day any more organized than it should be; your insight needs some opportunity, as well as time to unwind and think at last. So kindly guarantee that your schedule is adaptable.

While it is great to code consistently, arranging regular breaks is likewise fundamental. As strange as it might appear, time spent doing nothing truly makes you more useful.

Gain from prepared developers.

At long last, every beginner, exceptional, or creating coder ought to look for a carefully prepared software engineer to prompt them. Engineers make probably the most fantastic and most enthusiastic teachers since they’ve spent so much time gaining from every other person.

Last Thoughts

Before you rush to try the suggestions above, if it’s not too much trouble, recall that cutting edge dialects and innovation change after some time. So while advancing however many dialects as possible is a delightful thought, you’ll be a vastly improved developer on the off chance that you center around learning and grasping the nuts and bolts of programming.

The plain truth is that the essentials never modify; hence, it is ideal to comprehend the fundamental construction as opposed to the latest significant update to show up in a particular language. Grasping your favored language, or in any event, learning another dialect, will turn out to be a lot easier on the off chance that you have a strong comprehension of the nuts and bolts.


10 Ways to Become a Better Writer

Becoming a good writer takes time and practice, but that doesn’t mean you can’t speed up the process. Here are ten ways that you can become a better writer today.

1 Read, Read, Read

The best writers are voracious readers. There’s no better way to improve your writing skills than by reading the works of others. It’s important to read a variety of styles and genres. If you want to write fantasy novels, then don’t just read fantasy novels. Your writing skills and voice will broaden if you also read contemporary fiction, classics, non-fiction and whatever else you can find. Read ‘great works’ and figure out why they’re so great.

2 Write as Much as You Can

To become a great writer, you must practice your craft. If you’re struggling to find the time to write, put writing time in your schedule. Many writers wake up early to write in what may be the most peaceful time of day. Find a rhythm that works for you and stick with it.

3 Take a Writing Course

Writing isn’t typically a self-taught profession. There are numerous resources you can pursue when you need formal training. You might enroll in writing classes at a local college or apply to a graduate writing program. If cost is an issue, seek out a free online writing course.

4 Read The Elements of Style

If you want to read about writing, you ought to pick up a copy of The Elements of Style by William Strunk. This influential guide to English and grammar is one of the most highly regarded books ever written on the topic. It includes seven elementary rules of usage, eleven elementary principles of composition, a list of commonly misused words and other rules of form that you can’t do without. If you can’t get a copy for your personal library, you can find his work cited all over the internet.

5 Build Your Vocabulary

You’re bound to be more expressive when you write if you have more words at your command. When you come across a word you don’t know, take the time to look it up, then try to use that new word you’ve learned in your writing. You can also seek out vocabulary building exercises online to increase the number of words you have at your disposal.

6 Become a Better Researcher

Good writing is rooted deeply in good research. It’s much easier to craft a well-written book, article or manuscript when you have a wealth of information at your fingertips. A good way to learn about the research practices of others is to study the bibliographies of books you read. Consider the sources other writers used and how they informed the text.

This tip also feeds back into tip #1. Read non-fiction that relates to your writing topic. You never know what information or inspiration you can weave into your works!

7 Write for an Audience

There’s no pressure to improve your writing quite like having to share it with an audience. Forums for sharing your work are plentiful. You can read it at an open mic night, publish it on a blog or share it with friends. You may also consider sending your work out for publication. While the rejection letters every writer receives can be disheartening, your persistence will help you grow as a writer.

8 Get Workshop Feedback

Writing workshops are where aspiring and experienced writers get together for peer critiques. By joining one of these groups, you’ll get a variety of criticisms on your own writing. You’ll also strengthen your skills by learning to critique others. If you can’t find a local writing workshop, look for one online.

9 Learn How to Edit Your Own Work

Laurell K. Hamilton, author of the popular Anita Blake series, once said that ‘70% of a first draft is garbage and 30% is gold’ and she couldn’t be more right. Editing is part of writing. You’re fooling yourself if you think you can write a piece once and be done with it. There is always something that can be improved upon. By taking the time to learn how to edit your own work, you virtually guarantee that you will become a better writer.

You can also improve your work via peer editing. If you know of another person with the same passion for writing as yourself, you can practice your editing skills on each others’ works. At first, it may be much easier to spot mistakes or weak points, or simply find room and ideas for improvement, when looking at someone else’s work, but you can hone your critical eye so that it will be useful in examining your own writing.

10 Don’t Rely on Spell Check – Proofread

Proofreading is just as important as editing. While spell check tools are helpful, they’ll often miss errors. Careless mistakes can cost you a job, embarrass you and ruin a good piece of writing. Always proofread what you write. Do it slowly and do it twice.


How to Finance a Home With Bad Credit.

Many individuals have terrible credit nowadays. It’s difficult to get the supporting you really want for a home due to your low FICO rating. Be that as it may, sit back and relax, there are ways you can in any case fund a home loan in the event that your credit isn’t downright horrendous. Here are a few stages you can take to work on your risks of getting a home loan with terrible credit.

Allow a Lender To really look at your Credit

You should have your credit looked at by a bank before you can purchase. They should take a gander at all your major monetary records, including any obligations and whether you’ve paid them on time. Your objective ought to be to diminish how much obligation owed while expanding pay levels. Hence, if conceivable, have a go at taking care of a few old obligations or landing better positions, so everything looks great when it comes time for guaranteeing.

Have an Active Bank Account

Additionally, you will require a functioning and laid out ledger other than verification of pay. The justification behind this is moneylenders take a gander at the proportion of your complete obligation contrasted with your gross month to month pay while surveying in the event that they ought to give you a home loan or not. Assume both of these two elements is low. Nonetheless, it could be trying to get endorsed, yet it can work with a few discussion strategies and a lot of exertion in the interest of the borrower. There is no great explanation advances with unfortunate credit shouldn’t open up in time.

Get pre-supported

This implies visit one moneylender who approaches different home loan items to see what could fit best for your particular circumstance. In light of variables like initial installment cash accessible, month to month spending plan, where the house is found, and so forth. When endorsed, then, at that point, you can begin searching for homes that fit your financial plan.

Haggle with the Bank

In the event that you’ve proactively tracked down a spot to make a deal, now is the right time to do some arranging. Offers are acknowledged or dismissed in light of a few elements, incorporating what has occurred in the market as of late and whether they’re bringing in any cash off of you assuming control over their home loan installments. Thus, have a go at giving them not exactly the asking cost, so they realize you won’t be simple prey. This will assist with ensuring your proposition gets supported by coming down on them to take it before another person does. Keep in mind, discussion doesn’t need to include a lot this way and that.

Have an Affordable Monthly Payment Plan

The main thing you really want to do while purchasing a house with unfortunate credit is to guarantee a reasonable regularly scheduled installment plan and afterward stay with it. Speak the truth about what your pay can uphold every month with the goal that you don’t wind up in over limit or paying more than needed on the home loan consistently. One method for bringing in certain there’s sufficient cash left over subsequent to taking care of lodging costs is saving a few reserve funds prior to getting supported for funding. If conceivable, take a stab at saving three months of costs put something aside for crises, a half year of eating out less, or purchasing less expensive food to have a support on the off chance that something occurs.

Enlist an Agent With Experience

A realtor with experience working with clients who may not fulfill the guideline loaning rules is valuable while searching for a home, as they will be comfortable with banks that have some expertise in your circumstance.

Work With Lenders to Find the Right Loan

On the off chance that you find yourself ineligible for supporting in the wake of applying, it’s vital for work straightforwardly with your loan specialist or representative on tracking down another arrangement. There are various projects accessible at different rates and terms. There’s continuously something out there that squeezes into any spending plan/FICO rating level, for example, a VA credit with terrible credit. Attempting to make things fit won’t help anybody. You want some adaptability from your loan specialist on the off chance that you will get supported, yet don’t surrender trust presently! Many organizations have various choices, including without interest periods during which no month to month reimbursements are expected, so have opportunity and energy to develop your FICO score.

Last Thoughts

There are a ton of choices out there for you in the event that your credit isn’t really hot. You must be patient and realize that it could take more time than expected, yet the key is ingenuity and monitoring what’s the deal with everything.